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Heart and Soul – Emotional voices of black Americans Soul has always been referred to as the emotional voice of black America. It is born out of the meeting of two very different musical traditions one secular and the other religious. At the heart of most soul there is the tension between R’n’B and the seventh day spirituality of gospel. The more emotion or (soul) imbued in a performance the greater the sense of spiritual conviction. Although the spirit of soul transcends dates and places, it is essentially a 1960’s sound. It is a by-product of a moment in the history of black America, which was rooted in the civil rights movement and the harshness of ghettoe life where the main focus lay. Against this background recording labels like Motown in Detroit and Stax in Memphis served to establish both the music and their identities as something distinctly black. Call and response Call and response was the basis of good gospel church singing, where the lead singer calls out rhetorically evoking a group response either from the choir or the congregation. Considered a mid town style mostly found in the 1960’s soul music. The term in reality has no fixed origins but may be referred to uptown New York or uptown theatre in Philadelphia which were major venues in the 1960’s soul music circuit. Funk Funk music is a form of soul (described as dislocated soul) which embodies images of sweat, sexual exertion linked with grit the staples diet of southern soul food. It’s why it became the gritty sexual sound of America. Philly was an orchestral soul sound pioneered at Sigma sound studio in Philadelphia, coming out of inspired meetings of Italian and American session musicians known as MFSB. Northern Soul Northern Soul was exclusively a British term first coined by British writer Dave Goldings. It described the all night rare soul sound played in northern night clubs like the Twisted Wheel in Manchester, the Torch in Stoke-on-Trent and the most famous of all the Wigan Casino. Urban Contemporary There were many trendy terminologies within the definition of soul to describe a variety of facets within the music of which Urban Contemporary became one. Urban Contemporary was a term used in the 1970’s radio programming to describe the hybrid of street sounds played by most major stations in the black community. Essentially dance orientated urban contemporary music embraced everything including white artists and was seen as a compromise to soul’s black musical heritage. Another radio term that emerged was ‘Quiet Storm’ used to describe the soft romantic ballads. Retro-Nuevo Reto-Nuevo was another similar trendy term first used by black American writer Nelson George to describe an essentially 80’s phenomenon where soul music and black culture in general looked back at its own heritage.